The History of the Ajivikas can broadly he divided into three periods in conformity with the three main stages of development through which their doctrines had passed. The general facts about these periods are summed up below with a view to indicate the precise nature of the problems that confront us in the study of each.
It is my view that, given the complete impossibility of knowing what ‘early’ Buddhism was, the practice of offering speculative pictures of it inevitably casts all subsequent Theravada history in a pejorative light, which is a bad thing.
This book, the second edition of How Buddhism Began, takes a fresh look at the earliest Buddhist texts and offers various suggestions how the teachings in them had developed. Two themes predominate. Firstly, it argues that we cannot understand the Buddha unless we understand that he was debating with other religious teachers, notably Brahmins. The other main theme concerns metaphor, allegory and literalism…
Vietnam Buddhist Sangha.
National Department of International Buddhist Affairs.
A set of Buddhist symbols used in the religious practices that distinguish Buddhism from other religions.
Selected Articles from Paper Collection of Buddhists Statues and Cave Arts.
(Materials of The Second Asian Festival of Buddhist Culture and International Symposium).
The title of the Lankavatara discourse (Descent into Lanka; abbreviated Lanka) and the period of its compilation suggested by historians (i.e., the fourth century a.d.) provide interesting clues to understanding a text that is highly venerated by one of the major schools of Zen Buddhism, albeit considered to be an extremely unsystematic work by its followers. Unfortunately, the significance of the title and the period of compilation were ignored by the most competent authority on the text, D. T. Suzuki. The fact that the Lanka was adopted as a basic text of the Soto Zen tradition does not necessarily mean that the intention of its compilers was to propagate the doctrines of this particular school.